Hi mates,

During my spare time i have tried some tasks from DSC17 CTF by S21sec. I will comment here on those in which I found more difficult or fun. FBCTF was present as platform so from here tasks names will be countries associated.

Namibia – 450 points 

SREC Motorola Firmware

We can learn a lot from ctf tasks. Indeed there is a lot of encoding’s format like Motorola SREC. Basically encodes a header, data, indexes that points program execution, etc …

S00600004844521B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....

Task is asking us about serial number of local SSL web administrative page. So, if i’m not wrong, inside that file must be present a web server with some cert.pem file. First step is dump a binary file from srec format. We can use python library “bincopy”. There is another tools on Internet related to srec format for several srec’s types, but for me python works.

import bincopy

f = bincopy.BinFile()
f.add_srec_file("firmware.image")
b = f.as_binary()
print b

Let’s see inside srec.bin file generate using binwalk.

Interesting, an squashfs filesystem, so let’s extract with binwalk (-E) and see inside.

Looks like a www dir, seems we are near solution, find a cert.pem and extract SSL serial.

/etc/ ... 

4,0K drwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf 4,0K jul 25  2008 .
4,0K drwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf 4,0K jul 25  2008 ..
 512 -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf   64 jul 25  2008 ld.so.cache
 512 -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf   99 jul 25  2008 ld.so.conf
 512 -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf  147 jul 25  2008 local.tar.bz2
   0 drwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf    0 jul 25  2008 config
 512 -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf  253 jul 25  2008 ipkg.conf
   0 drwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf    0 jul 25  2008 langpack
1,0K -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf  578 jul 25  2008 postinit
2,0K -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf 1,8K jul 25  2008 preinit
   0 drwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf    0 jul 25  2008 kaid
1,5K -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf 1,4K jul 25  2008 ethertypes
 512 -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf   30 jul 25  2008 fstab
   0 drwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf    0 jul 25  2008 init.d
 512 -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf  491 jul 25  2008 motd
1,5K -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf 1,4K jul 25  2008 network.overrides
 512 -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf  512 jul 25  2008 patchtable.bin
 512 -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf  198 jul 25  2008 profile
6,0K -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf 5,7K jul 25  2008 protocols
 12K -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf  12K jul 25  2008 services
   0 drwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf    0 jul 25  2008 l7-protocols
1,5K -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf 1,5K jul 25  2008 lease_update.sh
1,0K -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf  810 jul 25  2008 cert.pem
 512 -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf  493 jul 25  2008 key.pem
1,0K -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf  561 jul 25  2008 privkey.pem
1,6M -rwxrwx--- 1 root vboxsf 1,6M jul 25  2008 www

openssl let you see info about a certificate, so let’s use:

openssl x509 -in cert.pem -text
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 1 (0x0)
        Serial Number:
            a9:69:1d:aa:b9:8c:63:e4
    Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
        Issuer: C = DE, ST = Saxon, L = Dresden, O = NewMedia-NET GmbH, OU = Division, CN = NewMedia-NET GmbH, emailAddress = [email protected]
        Validity
            Not Before: Jul 26 02:44:18 2008 GMT
            Not After : Jul 24 02:44:18 2018 GMT
        Subject: C = DE, ST = Saxon, L = Dresden, O = NewMedia-NET GmbH, OU = Division, CN = NewMedia-NET GmbH, emailAddress = [email protected]
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
                Public-Key: (512 bit)
                Modulus:
                    00:d7:fe:10:78:dd:da:07:0b:23:9d:20:a0:07:96:
                    a5:b0:e8:98:2f:35:05:95:37:3c:0c:a3:7b:5f:81:
                    97:42:2b:f5:3b:20:8c:a2:5f:e9:53:ea:59:58:ac:
                    89:c9:35:f9:f5:58:c3:a1:d3:d1:68:e6:17:fa:71:
                    c6:c1:e0:50:75
                Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
    Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
         40:31:d6:4e:05:64:74:cf:2d:31:75:56:c9:74:14:65:22:dc:
         36:36:d5:ca:1f:6d:34:55:47:6f:c5:11:b0:16:ad:2e:69:21:
         43:28:8b:91:19:6b:c8:90:a7:4f:be:25:40:a8:f0:b7:bb:be:
         04:69:b1:86:77:3d:fa:9a:70:07
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIICKDCCAdICCQCpaR2quYxj5DANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFADCBmjELMAkGA1UEBhMC
REUxDjAMBgNVBAgTBVNheG9uMRAwDgYDVQQHEwdEcmVzZGVuMRowGAYDVQQKExFO
ZXdNZWRpYS1ORVQgR21iSDERMA8GA1UECxMIRGl2aXNpb24xGjAYBgNVBAMTEU5l
d01lZGlhLU5FVCBHbWJIMR4wHAYJKoZIhvcNAQkBFg9pbmZvQGRkLXdydC5jb20w
HhcNMDgwNzI2MDI0NDE4WhcNMTgwNzI0MDI0NDE4WjCBmjELMAkGA1UEBhMCREUx
DjAMBgNVBAgTBVNheG9uMRAwDgYDVQQHEwdEcmVzZGVuMRowGAYDVQQKExFOZXdN
ZWRpYS1ORVQgR21iSDERMA8GA1UECxMIRGl2aXNpb24xGjAYBgNVBAMTEU5ld01l
ZGlhLU5FVCBHbWJIMR4wHAYJKoZIhvcNAQkBFg9pbmZvQGRkLXdydC5jb20wXDAN
BgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAANLADBIAkEA1/4QeN3aBwsjnSCgB5alsOiYLzUFlTc8DKN7
X4GXQiv1OyCMol/pU+pZWKyJyTX59VjDodPRaOYX+nHGweBQdQIDAQABMA0GCSqG
SIb3DQEBBQUAA0EAQDHWTgVkdM8tMXVWyXQUZSLcNjbVyh9tNFVHb8URsBatLmkh
QyiLkRlryJCnT74lQKjwt7u+BGmxhnc9+ppwBw==
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

And finally we get flag.

Flag: a9691daab98c63e4

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